Recent Publication: Biology Student, Faculty, and Staff

Thomas DR, Chadwell BA, Walker GR, Budde JE, Vandeberg JL, Butcher MT. “Ontogeny of myosin isoform expression and prehensile function in the tail of the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica),” Journal of Applied Physiology, May 2017. DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00651.2016

Former YSU biology student Dylan Thomas authored this paper in collaboration with faculty and staff from YSU, Ohio University, and the University of Texas Rio Grande Valley. The paper was submitted in July 2016 and was accepted and published in May 2017 by the American Physiological Society.


Terrestrial opossums use their semi-prehensile tail for grasping nesting materials as opposed to arboreal maneuvering. We relate the development of this adaptive behavior with ontogenetic changes in myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform expression from 21 days to adulthood. Monodelphis domestica is expected to demonstrate a progressive ability to flex the distal tail up to age 7 months, when it should exhibit routine nest construction. We hypothesize that juvenile stages (3-7 months) will be characterized by retention of the neonatal isoform (MHC-Neo), along with predominant expression of fast MHC-2X and 2B, which will transition into greater MHC-1β and 2A isoform content as development progresses. This hypothesis was tested using Q-PCR to quantify and compare gene expression of each isoform to its protein content determined by gel electrophoresis and densitometry. These data were correlated with nesting activity in an age-matched sample of each age group studied. Shifts in regulation of MHC gene transcripts matched well with isoform expression. Notably, mRNA for MHC-Neo and 2B decrease, resulting in little-to-no isoform translation after age 7 months, whereas mRNA for MHC-1β and 2A increase, and this corresponds with subtle increases in content for these isoforms into late adulthood. Despite the tail remaining intrinsically fast-contracting, a critical growth period for isoform transition is observed between 7 and 13 months, correlating primarily with use of the tail during nesting activities. Functional transitions in MHC isoforms and fiber type properties may be associated with muscle ‘tuning’ repetitive nest remodeling tasks requiring sustained contractions of the caudal flexors.

Faculty Publication: Robert J. Korenic

Robert J. Korenic, Associate Professor, Civil and Construction Engineering Technology, presented a paper entitled “Youngstown State University ‘Gateway Project’ Rain Garden Design Upgrades.” The paper was presented at the Engineering Sustainability Innovation and the Triple Bottom Line Conference on April 10, 2017 in Pittsburgh, PA. This is a national conference affiliated with the University of Pittsburgh Swanson School of Engineering and the Mascaro Center for Sustainable Innovation.

Robert J. Korenic



The Youngstown State University (YSU) “Gateway Project,” completed several years ago, was a large scale grounds and facilities project intended to upgrade several campus buildings and the grounds surrounding these facilities. Many of the upgrades utilized Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) sustainable design criteria. Included in these upgrades was the installation of bioswale and rain garden areas intended to help manage storm water runoff from new parking facilities. While the bioswales are functioning as intended, the rain garden has never maintained plant life and is not functioning to manage storm water runoff. Phase one of this research involved testing the hydraulic conductivity of the soil in the garden, sampling the soil for its pH and identifying the soil stratification in the garden by digging test pits. This document will recap the results of that research and build on those results by specifying how the rain garden can be rebuilt in order to properly manage the storm water runoff.

Faculty Publications: Nguyet Nguyen

Paper Title: “Hidden Markov Model for Portfolio Management with Mortgage-Backed Securities Exchange-Traded Fund” was published on the Society of Actuaries website in April. This project was funded by the finance research grants from SOA, from June 2016-June 2017.


The hidden Markov model (HMM) is a regime-shift model that assumes observation data were driven by hidden regimes (or states). The model has been used in many fields, such as speech recognition, handwriting recognition, biomathematics and financial economics. In this paper, we describe HMM and its application in finance and actuarial areas. We then develop a new application of HMM in mortgage-backed securities exchange-traded funds (MBS ETFs). We begin with a primer on the hidden Markov model, covering main concepts, the model’s algorithms and examples to demonstrate the concepts. Next, we introduce some applications of the model in actuarial and financial areas. We then present applications of HMM on MBS ETFs. Finally, we establish a new use of HMM for a portfolio management with MBS ETFs: predicting prices and trading some MBS ETFs. Data, algorithms and codes generated in this paper can be used for future research in actuarial science and finance.

Paper Title: “Using the Hidden Markov Model to Improve the Hull-White Model for Short Rate”, a collaboration work with Thomas Wakefield, YSU, and Dung Nguyen, Ned Davis Research Group, was accepted to publish in the International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance.

Recent Publication: Abdullah Kuraan, Stefan Moldovan, Kyosung Choo

Abdullah M. Kuraan, Stefan I. Moldovan, Kyosung Choo, “Heat transfer and hydrodynamics of free water jet impingement at low nozzle-to-plate spacings,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 108 (2017) 2211-2216.


In this study, heat transfer and hydrodynamics of a free water jet impinging a flat plate surface are experimentally investigated. The effects of the nozzle-to-plate spacing, which is equal to or less than one nozzle diameter (H/d = 0.08–1), on the Nusselt number, hydraulic jump diameter, and pressure at the stagnation point are considered. The results show that the normalized stagnation Nusselt number, pressure, and hydraulic jump diameter are divided into two regions: Region (I) jet deflection region (H/d ⩽ 0.4) and Region (II) inertia dominant region (0.4 < H/d ⩽ 1). In region I, the normalized stagnation Nusselt number and hydraulic jump diameter drastically increase with decreasing the nozzle-to-plate spacing, since the stagnation pressure increases due to the jet deflection effect. In region II, the effect of the nozzle-to-plate spacing is negligible on the normalized stagnation Nusselt number and hydraulic jump diameter since the average velocity of the jet is constant, which means the jet deflection effect disappears. Based on the experimental results, new correlations for the normalized hydraulic jump diameter, stagnation Nusselt number, and pressure are developed as a function of the nozzle-to-plate spacing alone.

Recent Publication: Biology Faculty & Students

STEM faculty members on the paper: Xiangjia “Jack” Min, Feng Yu, Chester Cooper
STEM graduate students:  Brian Powell, Vamshi Amerishetty, John Meinken
STEM undergraduate student: Geneva Knott

Powell B., Amerishetty V., Meinken J., Knott G., Feng Y., Cooper C., and Min X.J., 2016, “ProtSecKB: the protist secretome and subcellular proteome knowledgebase,” Computational Molecular Biolog 6(4): 1-12.


Kingdom Protista contains a large group of eukaryotic organisms with diverse lifestyles. We developed the Protist Secretome and Subcellular Proteome Knowledgebase (ProtSecKB) to host information of curated and predicted subcellular locations of all protist proteins. The protist protein sequences were retrieved from UniProtKB, consisting of 1.97 million entries generated from 7,024 species with 101 species including 127 organisms having complete proteomes. The protein subcellular locations were based on curated information and predictions using a set of well evaluated computational tools.  The database can be searched using several different types of identifiers, gene names or keyword(s). Secretomes and other subcellular proteomes can be searched or downloaded. BLAST searching against the complete set of protist proteins or secretomes is available.  Protein family analysis of secretomes from representing protist species, including Dictyostelium discoideum, Phytophthora infestans, and Trypanosoma cruzi, showed that species with different lifestyles had drastic differences of protein families in their secretomes, which may determine their lifestyles. The database provides an important resource for the protist and biomedical research community. The database is available at

Recent Publication: Dr. Jai K. Jung

Editors’ Choice – Canadian Geotechnical Journal – December 201

Jai K. Jung, Thomas D. O’Rourke, Christina Argyrou“Multi-directional force–displacement response of underground pipe in sand,” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 2016, 53(11): 1763-1781.

This paper is part of a Special Issue entitled “Pipeline geotechnics”.


A methodology is presented to evaluate multi-directional force–displacement relationships for soil–pipeline interaction analysis and design. Large-scale tests of soil reaction to pipe lateral and uplift movement in dry and partially saturated sand are used to validate plane strain, finite element (FE) soil, and pipe continuum models. The FE models are then used to characterize force versus displacement performance for lateral, vertical upward, vertical downward, and oblique orientations of pipeline movement in soil. Using the force versus displacement relationships, the analytical results for pipeline response to strike-slip fault rupture are shown to compare favorably with the results of large-scale tests in which strike-slip fault movement was imposed on 250 and 400 mm diameter high-density polyethylene pipelines in partially saturated sand. Analytical results normalized with respect to maximum lateral force are provided on 360° plots to predict maximum pipe loads for any movement direction. The resulting methodology and dimensionless plots are applicable for underground pipelines and conduits at any depth, subjected to relative soil movement in any direction in dry or saturated and partially saturated medium to very dense sands.

Recent Publication: Dr. Kyosung Choo

Brian K. Friedrich, Tamira D. Ford, Aspen W. Glaspell, Kyosung Choo, “Experimental study of the hydrodynamic and heat transfer of air-assistant circular water jet impinging a flat circular disk,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer Volume 106 (March 2017) 804-809.


Hydrodynamic and heat transfer characteristics of the circular hydraulic jump by air-assistant water jet impingement was experimentally investigated using water and air as the test fluid. The effects of volumetric quality (β = 0–0.9) on the hydraulic jump radius, local Nusselt number and, pressure at the stagnation point were considered under fixed water-flow-rate condition. The results showed that the dimensionless hydraulic jump radius increased with volumetric quality, attained a maximum value at around 0.8 of the volumetric quality, and then decreased. The hydraulic jump of two phase impinging jet is governed by the stagnation pressure and the lateral variation of Nusselt number is governed by hydraulic jump radius. Based on the experimental results, a new correlation for the normalized hydraulic jump radius of the impinging jet are developed as a function of the normalized stagnation pressure alone.

Recent Publications: John Martin

John Martin, an assistant professor of engineering technology at Youngstown State University, has recently presented for the American Society for Engineering Education and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Martin holds a bachelor’s and master’s degree in mechanical engineering and his research area is in engineering education.

Work in Progress: The Effects of Concurrent Presentation of Engineering Concepts and FEA Applications”, Martin, J., Martin, A., Proceedings of the 2016 ASEE Annual Conference and Expo, New Orleans, LA, June, 2016.

“CFD Analysis Comparing Steady Flow and Pulsatile Flow through the Aorta and its Main Branches”, Martin, J., Proceedings for the 2016 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, Phoenix, AZ, November, 2016.

Recent Publication: Faculty and Students in Physics & Astronomy

Michael Crescimanno and Jim Andrews, Professors in Physics & Astronomy, together with students Brandon Latronica and Maddie Smotzer, co-authored the paper “Linear distributed Bragg cavity effects on optical limiting in two- and three-level media,” to appear in a special December issue of the Journal of the Optical Society of America on the topic “Nonlinear Optics near the Fundamental Limit.” This work was funded through grants from the National Science Foundation. 


A lumped distributed Bragg reflector (DBR)-nonlinear layer-DBR system is used to explore how nonlinear optical effects (in particular, optical limiting) are modulated by the dispersive character of the (optically linear) DBR. A three-level quantum optics model of the nonlinear layer is used to find self-consistent numerical solutions to the (nonlinear) optical transport in the composite system. We find that the intensity dependence of the real part of the index can be combined with the dispersion in the (linear) DBR to cause optical limiting even for materials that have only a saturated absorber (two-level) response.

Recent Publication: Dr. Eric MacDonald

“Multiprocess 3D printing for increasing component functionality”
Published in Science Vol. 353, Issue 6307.


Science Magazine coverLayer-by-layer deposition of materials to manufacture parts—better known as three-dimensional (3D) printing or additive manufacturing—has been flourishing as a fabrication process in the past several years and now can create complex geometries for use as models, assembly fixtures, and production molds. Increasing interest has focused on the use of this technology for direct manufacturing of production parts; however, it remains generally limited to single-material fabrication, which can limit the end-use functionality of the fabricated structures. The next generation of 3D printing will entail not only the integration of dissimilar materials but the embedding of active components in order to deliver functionality that was not possible previously. Examples could include arbitrarily shaped electronics with integrated microfluidic thermal management and intelligent prostheses custom-fit to the anatomy of a specific patient. We review the state of the art in multiprocess (or hybrid) 3D printing, in which complementary processes, both novel and traditional, are combined to advance the future of manufacturing.

Recent Publications: Janet Gbur

Promoting Technical Standards Education in Engineering
2016 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition


The United States Standards Strategy, the framework developed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) to guide the U.S. standards system, recognizes the need for standards education programs as a high priority and recommends initiatives that address the significance and value of standards. To this intent, a novel workshop was developed in partnership with the library and the School of Engineering to raise the level of awareness of technical standards and standards usage on campus. The effort was a result of a campus-wide collaboration that provided a low-cost method of introducing technical standards and providing a foundation to develop a series of online tools accessible to the campus community. The event featured guest speakers representative of six major national and international standards bodies in addition to faculty, staff and students. The panels provided discussions on the background of the various types of standards and industries impacted, the development and implementation of these documents, the ways in which students and faculty can become more familiar with these documents and the benefit to becoming actively involved with standards organizations. The presentations and question-and-answer sessions provided a venue to learn about technical standards and to talk about ways to improve standards education within the campus community. The event was well received as shown by strong attendance and follow up to online materials continues to show activity five months following the event. This paper summarizes the implementation of the workshop, its impact, and strategies to further improve standards education on campus.

Fatigue and fracture of wires and cables for biomedical applications
International Materials Reviews


Fine wires and cables play a critical role in the design of medical devices and subsequent treatment of a large array of medical diagnoses. Devices such as guide wires, catheters, pacemakers, stents, staples, functional electrical stimulation systems, eyeglass frames and orthodontic braces can be comprised of wires with diameters ranging from 10s to 100s of micrometres. Reliability is paramount as part of either internal or external treatment modalities. While the incidence of verified fractures in many of these devices is quite low, the criticality of these components requires a strong understanding of the factors controlling the fracture and fatigue behaviour. Additionally, optimisation of the performance and reliability of these devices necessitates characterisation of the fatigue and fracture properties of its constituent wires. A review of cable architecture and stress states experienced during testing is followed by an overview of the effects of changes in material composition, microstructure, processing and test conditions on fracture and fatigue behaviour of wire and cable systems used in biomedical applications.The review concludes with recommendations for future work.

Recent Publications: Kyosung Choo

Dr. Kyosung Choo, assistant professor in the Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, has produced three publications this year in two different scientific journals.

Below is information on each publication followed by an abstract.

Friedrich B. K., A.W. Glaspell, K. Choo, The Effect of Volumetric Quality on Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Characteristics of Air-assistant Jet Impingement, Int. Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 101 (2016) 261-266.

Heat transfer characteristics of air-assistant water jet impingement was experimentally investigated under a fixed water flow rate condition. Water and air were used as the test fluids. The effects of volumetric quality (β = 0–0.9) on the Nusselt number and pressure were considered. The results showed that the stagnation Nusselt number increased with volumetric quality, attained a maximum value at around 0.8 of the volumetric quality, and then decreased. The stagnation Nusselt number of the air-assistant water jet impingement is governed by the stagnation pressure. Based on the experimental results, a new correlation for the normalized stagnation Nusselt number is developed as a function of the normalized stagnation pressure alone. In addition, the lateral variation of Nusselt number is governed by hydraulic jump radius.

K. Choo, Friedrich B. K., A.W. Glaspell, K. Schilling, The Influence of Nozzle-to-plate Spacing on Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow of Submerged Jet Impingement, Int. Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 97 (2016), 66 69.

In this study, heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of a submerged jet impinging on a flat plate surface are experimentally investigated. The working fluids are air and water. The effects of a wide range of nozzle-to-plate spacing (H/= 0.1 − 40) on the Nusselt number and pressure at stagnation point are considered. The results show that the Nusselt number and pressure are divided into three regions; region (I) jet deflection region (H/⩽ 0.6), region (II) potential core region (0.6 < H/⩽ 7), and region (III) free jet region (7 < H/⩽ 40). In region I, the Nusselt number and pressure drastically increase with decreasing the nozzle-to-plate spacing. In region II, the effect of the nozzle-to-plate spacing is negligible on the Nusselt number and pressure. In region III, the Nusselt number and pressure monotonically decrease with increasing the nozzle-to-plate spacing. Based on the experimental results, new correlations for the normalized stagnation Nusselt number and pressure are developed as a function of the nozzle-to-plate spacing alone.

K. Choo, and S. J. Kim, The influence of nozzle diameter on the circular hydraulic jump of liquid jet impingement,” Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 72 (2016) 12-17.

In this study, the circular hydraulic jump of jet impingement cooling was experimentally investigated using water as the test fluid. The effects of nozzle diameter (0.381, 0.506, 1, 2, 3.9, 6.7, 8 mm) on the hydraulic jump radius were considered. The results indicate that the dimensionless hydraulic jump radius (rhj/d) is independent of the nozzle diameter under fixed impingement power conditions, while the dimensionless hydraulic jump radius increases with decreasing nozzle diameter under fixed jet Reynolds number conditions. Based on the experimental results, a new correlation for the hydraulic jump radius is proposed as a function of the impingement power alone. It is shown that the proposed empirical correlation for the dimensionless hydraulic jump radius has the same form as that derived from a dimensional analysis of the conservation equations. In addition, the results clearly show that the dimensionless hydraulic jump radius depends on two dimensionless groups, jet Reynolds and Froude numbers, rather than just one, jet Reynolds number.

Recent Publications: Dr. Lucy Kerns

Dr. KernsLucy Kerns, assistant professor, Mathematics and Statistics, has authored two articles that have been accepted for publication. The first, titled “Construction of Simultaneous Confidence Bands for Multiple Logistic Regression Models over Restricted Regions,” will be published in the journal Statistics: A Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics. The second, titled “A Note on Range Regression,” has been accepted for publication by the Journal of Applied Probability & Statistics. The paper provides a new data analysis technique in seeking the linear pattern between two variables.

Construction of Simultaneous Confidence Bands for Multiple Logistic Regression Models over Restricted Regions


This article presents methods for constructing an asymptotic hyperbolic band under the multiple logistic regression model when the predictor variables are restricted to a specific region X. Scheff\'{e}’s method yields unnecessarily wide, and hence conservative, bands if the predictor variables can be restricted to a certain region. Piegorsch and Casella (1988) developed a procedure to build an asymptotic confidence band for the multiple logistic regression model over particular regions. Those regions are shown to be special cases of the region X, which was first investigated by Seppanen and Uusipaikka (1992) in the multiple linear regression context. This article also provides methods for constructing conservative confidence bands when the restricted region is not of the specified form. Particularly, rectangular restricted regions, which are commonly encountered in practice, are considered. Two examples are given to illustrate the proposed methodology, and one example shows that the proposed procedure outperforms the method given by Piegorsch and Casella (1988).

Recent Publication: John Martin

John D. Martin, assistant professor of Mechanical Engineering Technology at YSU, co-authored a paper with Anna M. Martin for the 2016 ASEE North Central Section Conference in Mt. Pleasant, MI, March, 2016.

The paper, “Interleaved Practice for Engineering Concepts,” outlines the main points of a proposed study that aims to enhance the educational approaches used in engineering classrooms. Martin’s main area of research is in engineering education.

From the ASEE website:

Founded in 1893, the American Society for Engineering Education is a nonprofit organization of individuals and institutions committed to furthering education in engineering and engineering technology. It accomplishes this mission by

  • promoting excellence in instruction, research, public service, and practice;
  • exercising worldwide leadership;
  • fostering the technological education of society; and
  • providing quality products and services to members.

In pursuit of academic excellence, ASEE develops policies and programs that enhance professional opportunities for engineering faculty members, and promotes activities that support increased student enrollments in engineering and engineering technology colleges and universities. Strong communication and collaboration with national and international organizations further advances ASEE’s mission.

ASEE also fulfills its mission by providing a valuable communication link among corporations, government agencies, and educational institutions. ASEE’s 12,000+ members include deans, department heads, faculty members, students, and government and industry representatives who hail from all disciplines of engineering and engineering technology. ASEE’s organizational membership is composed of 400 engineering and engineering technology colleges and affiliates, more than 50 corporations, and numerous government agencies and professional associations. ASEE directs many of its efforts at providing for open and ongoing dialogues among these groups.

Faculty Publication: Michael Crescimanno and Jim Andrews

Michael Crescimanno and Jim Andrews, Professors in Physics & Astronomy, co-authored the paper “Experimental Realization of Coherent Perfect Polarization Rotation” in the May 15 issue of Optics Letters, a rapid dissemination, peer-reviewed journal of the Optical Society of America. This work was funded through a National Science Foundation EAGER grant awarded to Drs. Crescimanno, PI, and Andrews, co-PI, and which supported co-author Dr. Chuanhong Zhou as a post-doctoral researcher at YSU.

Coherent perfect processes enable high optical efficiencies in optical conversion phenomena such as coherent perfect absorption or coherent perfect polarization rotation. A linear optical coherent perfect process based on Faraday rotation has been evaluated experimentally, achieving contrast limited by other optical components of the system and demonstrating like-parity resonance doublets above threshold.