Abdullah M. Kuraan, Stefan I. Moldovan, Kyosung Choo, “Heat transfer and hydrodynamics of free water jet impingement at low nozzle-to-plate spacings,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 108 (2017) 2211-2216.
In this study, heat transfer and hydrodynamics of a free water jet impinging a flat plate surface are experimentally investigated. The effects of the nozzle-to-plate spacing, which is equal to or less than one nozzle diameter (H/d = 0.08–1), on the Nusselt number, hydraulic jump diameter, and pressure at the stagnation point are considered. The results show that the normalized stagnation Nusselt number, pressure, and hydraulic jump diameter are divided into two regions: Region (I) jet deflection region (H/d ⩽ 0.4) and Region (II) inertia dominant region (0.4 < H/d ⩽ 1). In region I, the normalized stagnation Nusselt number and hydraulic jump diameter drastically increase with decreasing the nozzle-to-plate spacing, since the stagnation pressure increases due to the jet deflection effect. In region II, the effect of the nozzle-to-plate spacing is negligible on the normalized stagnation Nusselt number and hydraulic jump diameter since the average velocity of the jet is constant, which means the jet deflection effect disappears. Based on the experimental results, new correlations for the normalized hydraulic jump diameter, stagnation Nusselt number, and pressure are developed as a function of the nozzle-to-plate spacing alone.